Joan of Arc, 1915. John V. Van Pelt, Architect. Bronze, Mohegan granite; 20 ft. 4 in. x 6 ft. 1 in. x 12 ft. 3 in. | 6 m. 19.8 cm. x 1 m. 85.4 cm. x 3 m. 73.4 cm. Riverside Park at 93rd Street. Collection of the City of New York; Gift of the Joan of Arc Statue Committee. Photo by The Media Center for Art History, Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University in collaboration with the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Art Gallery.
Joan/Jeanne: Multiplying a Monument
By Caitlin Beach
“Jeanne d’Arc does not belong alone to France.”
So wrote the artist Louis-Maurice Boutet de Monvel in 1913, in approval of American efforts to raise a monument to the fabled medieval heroine in New York City.1 Boutet de Monvel, himself renowned for a bestselling, illustrated biography of Joan of Arc, had been solicited by the New York “Joan of Arc Statue Committee” to provide brief remarks on the contemporary significance of the French martyr. The committee, dedicated to bolstering Franco-American diplomatic relations on the eve of World War I, hoped to erect a statue in commemoration of the 500th anniversary of the maiden’s birth. “The statue must be worthy of the greatest personalities that has ever lived,” declared committee president George Kunz, “of one of the greatest of nations, France, to which it must be a tribute, and to the coming to the greatest city in the world, New York.”2
The sculptor Anna Vaughn Hyatt Huntington, who had recently completed a life size plaster cast of Joan of Arc on horseback, won the committee’s commission. Her bronze equestrian statue was unveiled to great fanfare in Manhattan’s Riverside Park on December 6, 1915, where it rises today amidst tall trees to overlook the Hudson River. Joan appears if she were ready for battle, clad in full armor and holding her sword aloft towards the skies. Yet the Manhattan installation and dedication of Huntington’s Joan of Arc stands as just one moment in the monument’s existence across space and time. As if attesting directly to Boutet de Monvel’s words, four additional full-size replicas cast from the Riverside monument exist in North America and in Europe. Between 1921 and 1938, copies of this statue were dedicated in Blois, France, Gloucester, Massachusetts, San Francisco, California, and Québec City. This essay considers to the replication and circulation of Huntington’s Joan of Arc, attending to the installation histories of the monument in each of these five cities. Together, these monuments map a constellation of commemorative landscapes marked by shifting meanings of history, memory, and heroism, each one specific to the social forces of its own moment and milieu.
Sculpting a Heroine: Paris and New York
Joan of Arc (1412-1431) has long been celebrated for leading France to victory during the Hundred Years’ War. Her legend is well known: a young peasant girl who, reportedly acting upon divine guidance, went to war against English invaders and liberated the besieged city of Orléans. Burned at the stake for heresy in 1431, the maiden entered the annals of history as a martyr who sacrificed her life for her country. As Michel Winock and other scholars have shown, Joan’s persona has been incarnated in manifold ways across different cultural, religious, and political contexts.3 She has assumed various guises over time – pious martyr, chaste maiden, and spirited warrior, among others – with each representation revealing as much about its contemporary interlocutors as about the subject herself.
A celebrated national heroine, the figure of Joan proved to be an ideal subject for monumental sculpture in France. The latter half of the nineteenth century saw an increasing demand for public statuary that could function as a unifying and uplifting force for its interlocutors. This rise of civic commemoration occurred concurrently with the urbanization of the French landscape, with statues dedicated to historic figures and events punctuating newly built public squares, parks, and boulevards.4 Denis Foyatier’s equestrian sculpture of Joan , dedicated at Place du Martroi in Orléans in 1855, stood as one of the earliest examples of these neoclassical Beaux-Arts monuments. The national quest for historical legitimacy and its attendant need to create physical markers of the built environment became increasingly urgent upon the advent of the Third Republic in 1870, which signaled the fall of a monarchical regime and the beginning of a new political order. 5 Émmanuel Frémiet’s gilded equestrian monument, erected at the Place des Pyramides in 1874, and Paul Dubois’ statue at the Place Saint-Augustin stand as just two examples of the many statues of the figures from the nation’s past that began to populate the streets of Paris.
It is fitting, then, that Anna Hyatt Huntington, an ambitious sculptor interested in making her mark in international art circles, produced an equestrian statue of Joan for her first monumental work.6 Already an established sculptor of animals par excellence, Huntington began modeling this statue in Paris in 1909, working from the former Montparnasse studio of the French sculptor Jules Dalou.7 She described the beginning of her new project in a letter to her mother that summer, writing,
…bought plasterine for the working model of Jeanne d’Arc & started the massing of it – but my ‘Chaperone’ says at the Musée at Rouen the saddle & armor of Jeanne are on exhibition. Rouen is her native town, so I suppose it is straight news and I must try to go up for a day or two when I can get someone to join me in such an exhibition.8
As this statement attests, Huntington conducted extensive research for the sculpture, drawing upon visits to displays of medieval armor and studies from live horse models to further refine the work. She completed the model in 1910 and exhibited its life size plaster cast at the Paris Salon of that year, where it earned an Honorable Mention.9
Huntington’s sculpture diverged from existing representations of the heroine. As she would recall later in life, “Every French sculptor has done his Joan of Arc…she’d been done in light of every imaginable form as far as I could see. And my challenge was to get a composition that was original, that hadn’t really been done before.”10 Working and living in Paris at this time, she would have been well acquainted in particular with the Dubois and Frémiet monuments as precedents for her work.11 In Frémiet’s 1874 version, the armor-clad Joan sits upright in the saddle, wielding a large standard that further stresses her unyielding verticality. The steed’s legs step rhythmically forward to lend equilibrium and symmetry to the composition. Dubois’ monument is comparatively more dynamic: the horse’s flexed hind legs and sprightly tail complement Joan’s raised sword and upward gaze to create an overall impression of movement. Huntington emphasized this kinetic power perhaps even more forcefully in her 1910 cast, specifically requesting her preference to acquire an “active, heavy horse” as a live model for the work.12 Its muscles appear clearly defined and naturalistic, recalling the lunging forms of the artist’s early animal sculptures. Joan leans her weight into the horse and grasps its reins, establishing a sense of anticipatory movement.
The dynamic energy of what one contemporary journalist called Huntington’s “spirited piece of sculpture” caught the eye of the members of the Joan of Arc Statue Committee, who were in search of the ideal Joan to immortalize in bronze in Manhattan.13 In a fundraising speech given in 1913, committee president George Kunz acknowledged the many existing depictions of the martyr, but rejected them as possible prototypes for the envisioned monument. Kunz’s remarks shed light on the committee’s eventual decision to commission Huntington’s work, and thus deserve to be quoted at length:
The fact that none of the statues [of Joan of Arc] heretofore erected fully satisfies our ideal should be an incentive to the production of a better work, and in the City of New York the subject presents many difficulties, and requires the creation of a very complex type; a blending of feminine and masculine characteristics, of idealistic and heroic qualities, of deep feeling and martial ardor. Let us hope that the artist who may be entrusted with the execution of this difficult task will be able to produce a work at once truly original and in accord with the best traditions.14
Huntington’s Joan held great appeal for many different audiences in New York in 1913.15 The image of a strong woman poised for victory fit the monument commissioners’ hopes for a statue that could embody patriotic courage as the conflict that would become World War I waged abroad. Furthermore, this very image of a female heroine would have also been resonant with the feminism of the woman’s suffrage movement, which at the time was gathering unprecedented momentum and mobility.16 The polyvalent image of Joan was once again adapted to a set of social and political forces specific to its present day.
The contemporary resonance of Joan of Arc was made especially clear at the monument’s dedication ceremony on December 6, 1915. Huntington’s statue had been enlarged to one and a fourth times life size and was cast by the Gorham Manufacturing Company, a Providence, Rhode Island art foundry known for its work in monumental sculpture. The statue’s neo-Gothic base was designed by the architect John Van Pelt and purportedly housed stone fragments from Joan of Arc’s prison walls at Rouen as well as from the recently bombed Reims Cathedral. At the ceremonies, schoolchildren sang the Marseillaise to the gathered crowd . Jean-Jules Jusserand, the French ambassador to the United States, gave a dedicatory speech evoking Joan’s leadership in light of the ongoing war. By this time in 1915, France had been at war for over a year, suffering significant losses along the Western Front.17 Though the United States did not formally enter the war until the spring of 1917, the urgency and reality of the conflict became increasingly clear to Americans as its scope and scale escalated overseas. Embodied in Huntington’s monument on Riverside Drive, Joan of Arc took on the status of a symbol of Franco-American friendship and universal heroine at a time of international crisis.
The image of Joan shifted dramatically following the First World War, and with it, the commemorative resonance of two copies of Huntington’s monument erected in France and the United States during these years. With the war’s end in 1918, the optimistic tone of Franco-American friendship so present at the Riverside monument dedication ceremony in 1915 had somewhat diminished. This postwar period saw, as Laura Coyle has noted, increasingly uneasy diplomatic relations between the two countries due to disagreements over war loan repayments.18 It was with these tensions in mind that the Joan of Arc Statue Committee commissioned a second copy of Huntington’s statue to send to France in 1921. The statue was presented by committee chairman J. Sanford Saltus to the city of Blois in August of that year, where it was dedicated in the royal Jardin de l’Archevêché. Jeanne d’Arc – rather than Joan of Arc – had returned “home” to French soil, in a manner of speaking. Acknowledged by the mayor of Blois as a “magnificent gift that stands as a precious souvenir of the close union between two great republics,” the monument was celebrated as a reminder of a shared history of diplomatic collaboration.19 Both Huntington and Saltus were declared honorary citizens of Blois, and French and American war veterans marched in ceremonial processions as a part of the day’s festivities.20
The memory of the war surfaced once again the following month, when citizens of Gloucester, Massachusetts gathered in front of the town hall to dedicate their own statue of Joan of Arc. This particular copy of Huntington’s work had been commissioned as a war memorial by the local chapter of the American Legion, the association for veterans of the recent conflict.21 Erected in front of the town hall, it was celebrated in the press for its local relevance and resonance. The Boston Globe reported that the monument’s base was made of granite quarried in neighboring Cape Ann and “inscribed with the names of those who made the great sacrifice.”22 That its sculptor also hailed from nearby Annisquam – and was reported to have modeled parts of the statue in her studio there – further enhanced its status as a monument of Gloucester and for Gloucester. While the Blois Joan was defined by its transatlantic character as a gift from one nation to another, the Gloucester Joan remained closely tied to its locale in its commission, creation, and dedication.
Much like with the Riverside dedication, the pomp and circumstance of the ceremonies in Blois and Gloucester spoke to a deep collective investment in the idea of a monument as a material conduit of abstract aspirations for goodwill and rememberance. While the commemorative nature of monuments was by no means a new phenomenon, it should be noted that the interwar era saw a rethinking through the concept of memory as a social and epistemological category. The French philosopher Maurice Halbwachs, for instance, published the influential study The Social Frameworks of Collective Memory in 1925. In it, he introduced the concept of collective memory as a social production, arguing, “It is in society that people normally acquire their memories. It is also in society that they recall, reorganize, and localize their memories.”23 Halbwach’s thesis is significant because it presents memory as a dynamic force constructed by its interlocutors. The multiples of Huntington’s monument dedicated in Europe and North America speak to this idea, with each individual replica evoking its own set of site-specific ideas of what Joan of Arc could signify.
Building a Legacy: San Francisco
In 1923, Anna Vaughn Hyatt married the philanthropist Archer Milton Huntington. As Anne Higonnet notes in the introductory catalogue essay for this exhibition, Archer’s wealth created a number of opportunities for the sculptor to have her work cast, circulated, and displayed.24 The installation of the fourth Joan of Arc monument in San Francisco, given as a gift on behalf of the couple, merits consideration within this context of building a personal and professional legacy.
In California, Anna Hyatt Huntington’s Joan of Arc stands on high bluffs on the northwestern corner of the San Francisco peninsula. Situated to overlook the Pacific Ocean, Joan holds a commanding presence on the area that is best known to San Franciscans today as Land’s End. The monument, presented by Archer to the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in 1926, was not the first time the Huntington family had made an artistic mark on the West Coast. In the early 1870s, the railroad magnate Collis P. Huntington – who had recently celebrated the birth of his son Archer – commissioned the artist Albert Bierstadt to produce a painting of the Sierra Nevada mountain range from Donner Pass.25 Collis hoped the painting would stand as a visual testament to the achievements of his Central Pacific Railroad Company in traversing this passage of rocky and treacherous land.26 In Bierstadt’s Donner Lake from the Summit, donated by Archer to the New-York Historical Society in 1909, the pass frames a sweeping westward view reflected in golden sunlight. The train snakes through mountain snow sheds on the right hand side of the composition, as if to proclaim the triumph of human engineering over the natural landscape. The 1926 installation of Anna Hyatt Huntington’s Joan of Arc in San Francisco must be understood within this longstanding family interest in asserting a continental presence. Archer Huntington’s gifts to the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, this sculpture included, had been presented to the museum in honor of the legacy of his father Collis.27 Eleven years later, Joan of Arc was joined by a copy of the sculptor’s equestrian statue of the legendary Spanish warrior El Cid Campeador. The original version of this sculpture been installed in the courtyard of the Hispanic Society of America, the museum founded by Archer in 1904. The copies of Joan and El Cid stand in San Francisco as geographical bookends to their Manhattan counterparts, establishing the philanthropic and artistic presence of Anna Hyatt and Archer Huntington on both coasts.
Nearly thirty years after Huntington first modeled her plaster maquette of Joan of Arc, the sculptor and her husband anonymously presented a fifth and final equestrian statue of the heroine to the Canadian National Battlefields Commission.28 The monument was installed and unveiled in the autumn of 1938 in Québec City’s newly built Jardin Jeanne d’Arc, situated on the heights of the former Seven Years War battlefield of the Plaines d’Abraham. The gift met initial resistance from its recipients, many of whom felt that Joan had “no place in Canadian history.”29 Indeed, erecting a statue of the French heroine – who had once led her country to victory against the English – on the very soil where British troops soundly routed French forces from the North American continent during the 1759 Battle of Québec seemed somewhat ironic. The inscription carved into the monument’s stone base made an oblique reference to the historic conflict, stating, “Inspired by the historic charm of Québec, the two anonymous donors of this monument have offered it to the National Battlefields Commission as an emblem of the patriotism and valour of the brave in 1759 and 1760.”30
These broad, even vague, terms upon which the Québec Joan was anonymously given and dedicated seems to contrast with the installations of its four predecessors. The New York, Blois, Gloucester, and San Francisco monuments were each commissioned upon specific occasions or given as explicit gifts: to celebrate Franco-American friendship, to commemorate local war participants, or to honor a family legacy. Yet the Huntingtons quietly presented the fifth Joan of Arc replica to Québec, where it was subsequently recognized not on national terms, but rather acknowledged simply as an “emblem of the patriotism and valour of the brave.” This statement invites a range of meanings, applicable to perhaps any participant during a conflict in which the very nature of national allegiances – whether French, British, New French, indigenous, and American – stood themselves contested. This said, it is crucial to note that the Canadian government had recently set aside the Plaines as a space open to a plurality of meanings in the Francophone city; the title deeds for the park proclaimed the space “as a perpetual memorial, by English and French Canadians, of the great deeds in which both people feel an equal pride.”31 Huntington’s monument fits into this open-ended context, reminding us of Boutet de Monvel’s earlier statement to the New York Joan of Arc Statue Committee that “Jeanne d’Arc does not belong alone to France.” In Québec, a city whose civic identity as a sovereign French Canadian entity has been continually asserted and contested over time, the variable persona of Joan/Jeanne seems most at home.
The notion of singular national identity was continually called into question during the early twentieth century, with the upheaval of the First World War and increased global connectivity setting the very parameters of what constituted modern nationhood into constant flux. In this context, the open-ended civic meaning invited by fifth and final Québec monument reminds us of the overtones of transnational cooperation that motivated the conception of the initial Joan of Arc for New York three decades before. The image of Joan, perhaps defined best by the virtue of its very resistance to a single and static meaning over time, proved to be adaptable to modern monuments that would encompass the overlaps and interstices of cultures.
“Anne Vaughn Hyatt to Make New York Joan of Arc Statue.” The Christian Science Monitor, 11 November 1914.
Books and other articles:
Boime, Albert. Hollow Icons: The Politics of Sculpture in Nineteenth-Century France. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1987.
Bogart, Michele. Public Sculpture and the Civic Ideal in New York City, 1890-1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
Bruckner, Phillip and John G. Reid, eds. Remembering 1759: The Conquest of Canada in Historical Memory. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.
Chevillot, C. Emmanuel Frémiet, 1824-1910: Le Main et le multiple. Dijon: Musée des Beaux-arts, 1998.
Choay, Françoise. L’Allégorie du patrimoine. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1992.
Christ, Ronald. “Anna Hyatt Huntington.” Sites 16/17 (1986): 38-48.
Conner, Janis and Joel Rosenkranz. Rediscoveries in American Sculpture: Studio Works, 1893-1939. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989.
Dolgin, Ellen Ecker. Modernizing Joan of Arc: Conceptions, Costumes, and Canonization. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Co., 2008.
Eden, Myrna Garvey. “The Significance of the Equestrian Monument ‘Joan of Arc’ in the Artistic Development of Anna Hyatt Huntington.” The Courier 12, no. 4 (1975): 3-12.
Evans, Cerinda W. Anna Hyatt Huntington. Newport News, Va.: Mariners Museum, 1965.
Ferber, Linda S. The Hudson River School: Nature and the American Vision. New York: New-York Historical Society in collaboration with Rizzoli, 2009.
Halbwachs, Maurice. On Collective Memory, trans. Lewis A. Coser. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Heimann, Nora M. and Laura Coyle. Joan of Arc: Her Image in France and America. Washington, D.C.: Corcoran Gallery of Art, 2006.
Humphries, Grace. “Anna Vaughn Hyatt’s Statue.” International Studio LVII (December 1915), p. XLVIII.
Huntington, Anna Hyatt. Anna Hyatt Huntington. New York: W.W. Norton, 1947.
Joan of Arc Loan Exhibition Catalogue: Paintings, Pictures, Medals, Coins, Statuary, Curios, Etc. New York: Museum of French Art and The American Numismatic Society, 1913.
Mauss, Marcel. “Gifts and the Obligation to Return Gifts.” In The Object Reader, Fiona Candlin and Raiford Guins, eds. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Meltzer, Françoise. “Joan of Arc in America.” Substance 32, no. 1 (2003), 90-99.
Nouailhat, Yves-Henri. “Des Rives de l’Hudson aux rives de la Loire: Un don original.” Les Cahiers de l’Académie littéraire de Bretagne et des Pays de la Loire (209): 111-121.
Oral history interview with Anna Hyatt Huntington, circa 1964. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Riegl, Alois. “The Modern Cult of Monuments: Its Character and Origin,” transl. Foster and Ghirardo, Oppositions 25 (Fall 1982): 21-56.
Schaub-Koch, Emile. Madame Anna Hyatt Huntington et la statuaire moderne. New York, 1936.
Sniter, Christel. “La Gloire des femmes célèbres: Métamorphoses et disparités de la statuaire publique parisienne de 1870 à nos jours.” Sociétés et Représentations 2, no. 26 (2008).
________. “La Guerre des Statues: La Statuaire publique, un enjeu de violence symbolique: l’exemple des statues de Jeanne d’Arc à Paris entre 1870 et 1914.” Sociétés et Représentations 1, no. 11 (2001): 263-286.
Strachan, Hew. World War I: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Twain, Mark. Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1896.
1 Louis-Maurice Boutet de Monvel to the Joan of Arc Statue Committee, 3 January 1913, reprinted in American Numismatic Society, Joan of Arc Loan Exhibition Catalogue (New York: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford Company, 1913), 35.Back
3 The polyvalency of Joan’s image over time has been addressed in numerous volumes; most significantly, the historian Michel Winock has provided an extensive and important discussion of the appropriation of her image by the extreme French right within the last few deacades. See Winock, “Jeanne d’Arc,” in Les Lieux de Mémoire, vol. 3, ed. Pierre Nora (Paris: Gallimard, 1992), 684-733. See also Nora M. Heimann and Laura Coyle, eds., Joan of Arc: Her Image in France and America (Washington, D.C.: Corcoran Gallery of Art, 2006); Ellen Ecker Dolgin, Modernizing Joan of Arc: Conceptions, Costumes, and Canonization (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Co., 2008).Back
4 Christel Sniter, “La Guerre des statues. La statuaire publique, un enjeu de violence symbolique: l’exemple des statues de Jeanne d’Arc à Paris entre 1870 et 1914,” Sociétés et Représentations 1, no. 11 (2001), 263.Back
5 Sniter, “La Guerre des statues. La statuaire publique, un enjeu de violence symbolique,” 263-286. For a comprehensive discussion of this age of monument building, see Albert Boime’s classic study, Hollow Icons: The Politics of Sculpture in Nineteenth Century France (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1987).Back
6 It is worth noting here that Huntington was familiar with Mark Twain’s bestselling novel, The Recollections of Joan of Arc, published in New York by Harper and Bros. in 1896. Janis Conner and Joel Rosenkranz, Rediscoveries in American Sculpture: Studio Works, 1893-1939 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989), 72.Back
7 Conner and Rosenkranz, Rediscoveries in American Sculpture, 72; Myrna Garvey Eden, “The Significance of the Equestrian Monument ‘Joan of Arc’ in the Artistic Development of Anna Hyatt Huntington,” The Courier 12, no. 4 (1975), 6.Back
9 In 1914, one journalist recalled the success of Huntington’s sculpture at the Salon, stating allegedly that, “Many Frenchmen wished the statue to remain in France. The Bishop of Blois stated a subscription to purchase it to place in front of Blois cathedral.” “Anne Vaughn Hyatt [sic] to Make New York Joan of Arc Statue,” The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file), 11 November 1914, 7.
11 It should also be acknowledged that a copy of Frémiet’s sculpture was presented of to the city of Philadelphia in 1890 as a symbol of Franco-American friendship. See Heimann and Coyle, Joan of Arc: Her Image in France and America, 59; for a contemporary accounts of this statue, see “Equestrian Monuments: Joan of Arc,” The American Architect and Building News, 26 October 1889, 191; W.P. Lockington, “Sculpture in Philadelphia,” The Collector and Art Critic 1, no. 4 (June 1899), 58.Back
15 For a discussion of the cultural transformations of in New York in 1913, see Daniel Borus, “The Armory Show and the Transformation of American Culture,” in The Armory Show at 1900: Modernism and Revolution, Marilyn Satin Kushner and Kimberly Orcutt, eds. (New York: New-York Historical Society, 2013).Back
16 The image of Joan was frequently evoked, for example, in women’s suffrage parades. As Laura Coyle puts it, “Joan of Arc represented patriotism, courage, militancy, piety, moral authority, and a fighting spirit, but it was her sex and challenge to gender roles that made her particularly relevant.” Heimann and Coyle, Joan of Arc: Her Image in France and America, 66-67.Back
17 For a comprehensive account of World War I in 1915, see Chapter 3, “Maneouvre Warfare: The Eastern and Western Fronts, 1914-15” of Hew Strachan, World War I: A History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 39-53.Back
19 “Ce don magnifique qui restera comme un souvenir précieux de l’union intime des deux grandes Républiques.” All translations from the French are my own. Quoted in Yves-Henri Nouailhat, “Des rives de l’Hudson aux rives de la Loire: Un don original,” Les Cahiers de l’Académie littéraire de Bretagne et des Pays de la Loire (2009), 119.Back
23 Maurice Halbwachs, “The Social Frameworks of Memory,” in On Collective Memory, trans. Lewis A. Coser (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 38. The art historian Kirk Savage provides a synposis of this source, and several others relating to collective memory, in the online resource “History, Memory, and Monuments: An Overview of the Scholarly Literature on Commemoration,” National Park Service, 2006, Accessed 14 December 2013.Back
28 This organization had been organized twenty years before in an effort to promote Canadian patrimony, and was active in preserving historic sites and monuments throughout the provinces. J.T. Little, “In Search of the Plains of Abraham: British, American, and Canadian Views of a Symbolic Landscape, 1793-1913,” in Remembering 1759: The Conquest of Canada in Historical Memory, Phillip Bruckner and John G. Reid, eds. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012), 99.Back